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Source: Ciphers For The Little Folks






LESSON VII—THE TIME-TEACHING CLOCK


In this clock the movable colored dots indicating the minutes are used to spell out the time in cipher. In the working cards to be provided for the child the colored dots are to be inserted in the holes made for the purpose around the face of the clock. There being sixty dots, any phrase expressive of time not exceeding twelve letters in length (that is, twelve times five dots for each letter equals 60) is available for indicating the time in cipher. That is to say, any phrase such as “half-past ten,” “nine-thirty,” etc., can be indicated on the clock by using five times as many dots as there are letters in the phrase selected. Should there be less than twelve letters in the phrase, the holes remaining are to be left blank.


This lesson is extremely flexible in respect to the many combinations which it makes possible. The teacher or parent should bear in mind that the most effective use of the clock is to be attained by first choosing a phrase designating some time of the day which is significant in the daily experience of the child—such as the opening or closing hour of school, the play hour, the dinner hour, or “bed-time.” This phrase is converted into cipher by having the child place the dots representing the letters of the phrase, beginning at the figure twelve, around the clock face. After this has been done the child should be asked to “decipher” the phrase by naming the letter which each group of five dots stands for. When this is accomplished, the ability to read the time becomes an unconscious achievement, since the hands of the clock are then placed by the parent or teacher, or by the child under her direction, in the proper position to indicate the deciphered phrase. If, for example, the phrase “half-past nine” is selected and the child has extracted this from the colored dot combination, the hands of the clock are moved to nine-thirty. The child, with the phrase fresh in his mind, learns from this the position of the hands of the clock representing the time, since the mental image of the clock face with the hands in the required position establishes an association which becomes indelibly impressed on the child’s mind.


The method here described is the best for young children. With children of more advanced age and greater ability to use their own minds, the reverse practice may be followed. The teacher may name the phrase designating the time, and direct the child to put in place the colored dots representing the letters of the phrase by referring for each letter to the code. This requires an intelligence of a higher order than the method first described.


 



By reference to the code the arrangement of the dots on the clock will be found to spell the time indicated by the hands, i. e., “five past four.” The red dots represent the a, the blues the b.



 


LESSON VIII



On this cipher necklace the square beads represent the a form, the round beads the b form. The cipher words are “Yankee Doodle.” For working this or any other appropriate phrase, the child should string the beads on one of the laces provided.



 


LESSON IX



This is similar to the preceding lesson except that in this case the blue beads represent the a form, the orange beads, the b form. The cipher words are “A Cipher Chain.”



 


LESSON X



This cipher necklace combines both Lessons VIII and IX, and shows how two ciphers may be infolded at once. Reading the beads first as regards their shape and using the same system as in Lesson VIII, the necklace still spells out the word “Yankee Doodle.” Then reading the beads as regards color, the words “A Cipher Chain” are deciphered, as in Lesson IX. This lesson gives a hint of the possibility of enfolding three, four, or five cipher messages at once.



 


LESSON XI



In this lesson comes the first step in showing how a cipher message may be hidden within an ordinary architectural example. The red circles represent the a form, the blue ones the b form; the reading proceeds in exactly the same way in which the figure is written. The cipher phrase is “United States.” Any figures can be selected for the children to form, provided, when formed, they contain the requisite number of circles of each color.



 


LESSON XII



The cipher word is “pasture,” the red circles being the a form, the blue ones the b form.



 


LESSON XIII



The cipher word is “Barking,” the red circles being the a form, the blue ones the b form.



 


LESSON XIV



The word “CIPHER” contains the hidden name “Sir Francis Bacon,” the red circles being the a form, the blue ones, the b form. The reading proceeds in the same manner as the strokes of the letters would be made by the hand. The design in the margin contains a double cipher, similar in construction to the necklace in Lesson X. The red and blue pieces still represent the a and the b forms respectively, as before, and the cipher word is “alphabet.” This constitutes the first cipher. The second cipher is based upon the difference in shape of these pieces, the long ones being the a form, the circles, the b form. The cipher word is “decipher.”



 


LESSON XV



The phrase “Biliteral Cipher” is made to contain the hidden word “key” by the use of a capital letter for the a form, and a small letter for the b form. The borders to the lines contain the cipher word “letter,” the blue sticks being the a form, the red ones the b form. The reading proceeds from left to right in each line, beginning with the line at the top. The children may be directed to cut out any set of letters of appropriate size to form any desired phrase, using capital and small letters on the same principle as in the example.



 


LESSON XVI


Design for Peacock Lodge. For Col. George Fabyan.

 















CIPHER CODE   Explanation
a a a a a = A

a a a a b = B

a a a b a = C

a a a b b = D

a a b a a = E

a a b a b = F

a a b b a = G

a a b b b = H

a b a a a = I-J

a b a a b = K

a b a b a = L

a b a b b = M

a b b a a = N

a b b a b = O

a b b b a = P

a b b b b = Q

b a a a a = R

b a a a b = S

b a a b a = T

b a a b b = U-V

b a b a a = W

b a b a b = X

b a b b a = Y

b a b b b = Z
  This architect’s sketch presents an interesting method of making use of the Biliteral Cipher. The white bricks are supposed to represent the a form letters, the shaded bricks the b form. Begin with the top of the wall, at the left-hand, below the tower, read the lines from left to right, and assign an a or b to each brick on that principle, dividing off the resultant a’s and b’s into groups of five. Then refer to the accompanying cipher code which will show you for which letter of the alphabet each group stands. The result will be amusing as well as interesting and instruc






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